Goat Milk Yogurt
Goat milk yogurt is one of the major cultured products. It may be made from low-fat, skim or whole milk. Goat milk yogurt can be made in a similar manner to the cow counterpart. It is made essentially the same way as buttermilk, but a different combination of microorganisms is cultured at a higher incubation temperature. Goat milk yogurt is softer and less viscous and often lacks the typical flavor of cow yogurt.
The basic processing procedures of Goat Milk Yogurt include:-
- Preparation of goat milk
- Standardization (standardized to 1.0 – 1.7% fat)
- Pasteurization (72 degree Celsius for 20 second)
- Cool the pasteurized mix to 46.7 degree Celsius and hold in vat for up to 15 minutes.
- Inoculation – 45 degree Celsius ( carefully introduce into warm milk or milk mixes 1.25% by weight of active Lactobacillus bulgaricus culture.
- Packaging (set yogurt)
- Incubation (permit filled containers to remain in room at 45 degree Celsius for 3 – 5 hours or until a firm, smooth gel has formed to pH4.5
- Chilling (yogurt is chilled to 7.2 degree Celsius in less than 1 hour)
- Storage and Distribution (store the containers of yogurt at 4.4 degree Celsius or lower, the shelf life at this temperature is 30 to 60 days).
Buttermilk is usually made from skim milk (less than 0.5% fat) using the by-product from churning butter out of sour cream. Yogurt is made from whole milk (3.25% fat), low fat milk (0.5 to 2.5% fat) or skim milk. Sour cream must contain 18% fat in most states. Acidophilus milk can be made by the activity of L. acidophilus, which is capable of converting a greater proportion of the lactose to lactic acid (2%).
Kefir is an acidic, slightly foamy product made from pasteurized and fat-standardized or decreamed goat milk that has passed through a combined acidic and alcoholic fermentation of symbiotic lactic acid bacteria and yeast kefir grains. The finished product Kefir, contains 0.6 to 0.8% lactic acid and 0.5 to 1.0% alcohol.
Other Cultured Goat Milk Products
Ghee is an Indian clarified butterfat product manufactured by fermenting whole milk into curd and churning out the butter, followed by heat clarification at 105 – 145 degree C.
Additionally, good goat milk products made in India include Chhana, Khoa and Paneer (a cheese). Chhana is an acid and heat-coagulated milk product and a chhana-based sweet is made by kneading chhana and cooking it in sugar syrup over medium heat. Khoa is a heat-desiccated indigenous goat milk product used for various sweets or candy.