ALPHA S1 CASEIN Effects on Cheesemaking

 

The alpha s1-casein is a protein polymorphism of goat milk, and is one found in all dairy goat breeds.

 

The a s1-casein is a protein polymorphism of goat milk first described in Europe, in the French Alpine and Saanen breeds, in the early nineteen eighties.

 

These polymorphisms have been found to affect cheese-making due to differences in protein content, renneting properties (faster coagulation and firmer curd) and a possible connection in relation to cheese flavor. Researched conducted on homozygous individuals for the various alleles confirmed the effects of genotype on the casein content in milk by showing the cheese-making yield observed in milk produced by those animals with strong alleles was 7 per cent higher in comparison with those with medium alleles and 15 per cent  higher than those with weak alleles. In addition, there have been studies that suggest that the genetic variation resulting in low or null levels could contribute to milk with a lesser antigenic burden and be of potential benefit to those with milk sensitivities.

 

Knowing the specific genetic polymorphism at goat casein loci on breeding stock would allow the breeder to set up breeding and selection programs targeted towards the improvement of cheese-making yield by selecting for high expression alleles, or selecting for animals with low levels which will be of benefit to those with milk or casein  sensitivities.

 

Fortunately, Veterinary Genetics Laboratory at University of California, Davis, makes such testing possible in the United States.  The test would detect low level variants for casein – E, F, and N. High level variants for casein  – A or B, which represent several specific alleles. If you are interested in this testing for your does or buck you can approach ADGA.

 

However, the test is not designed to detect subvariants of A and B. The animal above (A/E), if a doe, would be expected to produce intermediate levels of the casein and pass on either the A or E to their offspring.  The animal above, if a buck, would have daughters that would inherit either the A (high level) or E (lower level).  The variant inherited from their dam would determine whether they were an intermediate or high level producer of casein.

 

 

 

As Featured On EzineArticles

Learn How Goats Milk Products Benefits the Elderly

 

Various goat milk products including fresh milk, milk powder, fermented, frozen, condensed and dehydrated milk, and skin care products are produced in many countries. Goat milk plays a vital role in our body and skin as well.

 

As we age, the changes in our bodies create challenges for sufficient nutrient intake and absorption. Goat milk and dairy goat products provide good source of protein, calcium, minerals, vitamins and beneficial fats to fulfill elderly adults nutritional requirements.

 

Normally, elderly adults lack the motivation to cook nutritional meals especially if it has been their daily routine throughout their entire life. Therefore, dairy goat products, such as milk, cheese and yogurt which do not require cooking or preparation, when combined with other nutritious, ready-to-eat foods like fruits, bread or crackers, can provide a nutrient-dense, protein-rich meal with little effort.

 

 

Elderly adults with gum and mouth problems, like dentures or missing teeth, along with reduced saliva production, create problems chewing and swallowing solid foods. Goat milk and soft cheeses require no or little chewing, and can be combined with other soft foods to provide variety, like pureed fruits.

 

Many elderly adults tend to drink less than optimal amounts of liquids due to reduce sensation of thirst. Milk is nearly 90 percent water, and can provide hydration in a form that many elderly adults find more appealing than water. Milk is also easily flavored to suit particular tastes.

 

Some elderly adults take diuretics, which cause elevated excretion of important minerals like potassium, calcium and magnesium. Goat milk has 134 per cent more potassium than cow milk, and also has higher levels of magnesium.

 

Food moves more slowly through the gastrointestinal tract of the elderly adults , often resulting in constipation. Goat milk is highly digestible and 100 per cent of the protein in milk is absorbed before it reaches the large intestine. Cultured goat milk products, such as yogurt, buttermilk and kefir, also contain bacteria that are beneficial to gastrointestinal health.

 

Elderly adults often complaint of lack of appetite, their taste have changed and the texture of many foods are disagreeable. Lack of appetite combined with reduced nutrient absorption can cause weight loss and dwindling muscle tissue. Whole goat milk is calorie and protein-rich, containing more fat, protein and amino acids than cow milk. Goat milk and dairy goat products have mild taste and the smooth textures are usually easily accepted. They are also easy to blend with cooked foods and milk, plain yogurt or sour cream can be used to moisten foods which would otherwise be dry or difficult to chew.

 

Skin Care

 

Goat milk is also great for your skin because it is rich in vitamins, minerals, proteins as well as high in lactic acid which helps exfoliate dead skin cells and soften your skin. Elderly skin care is a very important health concern for aging adults. While our skin is generally ignored throughout life unless we have a cut, a rash, an itch, or a burn, etc., Skin is our largest and important organ – adults carry some 8 pounds (3.6 kilograms) and 22 square feet (2 square meters) of it,  and the  skin plays a much bigger role than just holding everything together in one package.

 

Healthy skin keeps infectious agents from entering the body, synthesizes essential vitamin D from sunlight, manufactures vitamin D for converting calcium into healthy bones and provides our sensation of touch through the various nerves running throughout.

 

The hallmark of goat milk is its gentleness and nutritive properties in digestion, but those same properties carry over to the skin care products, as well. Goat milk skin care products are especially suited for caring for the special challenges that aging skin presents.

 

For cleansing, goat milk soap has the benefits of a lower pH, making it more friendly to the skin’s protective acid mantle, and a high fat content that supplies moisture, while gently removing dirt and dead skin cells.

 

Goat milk soaps also come in a vast array of combinations that include nourishing herbs and other natural ingredients tailored for specific skincare needs. Read the labels or inquire as to the suitability of particular ingredients for elderly skin care, or for other special skin care needs.

 

Creams, lotion and body butters made from goat milk are also especially nourishing for elderly skin. The special fat and protein molecules from goat milk, along with an array of vitamins and minerals, are easily absorbed through the skin, providing hydration, a protective moisture barrier, and nourishment for the skin all at the same time.

 

Isolated rough patches of skin might also benefit from the application of a homemade facial solution containing goat milk yogurt, sour cream or buttermilk. These fermented products contain lactic acid, one of the alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), known for helping to remove dead surface layer skin cells to leave skin smoother.

 

These goat milk versions of alpha hydroxy acid contain no additional chemicals or preservatives and are not as harsh as commercial products.

 

Conclusion, goat milk and dairy goat products provide an immediate source of energy and important nutrients to you and elderly adults. Additionally, it is also vital to nourish skin from the inside out. Proper nutrition is an imperative component in elderly skin care.

As the saying goes, “The proof is in the pudding.”That pudding was made with goat milk, right?

 

If you or an elderly loved one suffers from dry, itchy skin, try a cleansing and hydration program based on goat milk. Products are widely available, and come in a range of scents or unscented and added ingredients.

 

Experiment with different brands and varieties to find one that works best for your special needs.

 

Of course, homemade products are almost guaranteed to be less irritating and more moisturizing than commercial products, not to mention less expensive!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


As Featured On EzineArticles